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Table of Contents

In Essence

Anthony James Joes, in Presidential AT^^^ Like Ike Studies Quarterly (Summer 1985), 208 East 75th St., New York, N.Y. 10021.
Few Chief Executives have fared so poorly among scholars of the presi- clency as Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-61). Only two years after he left office, a poll of historians ranked him 20th in stature among U.S. presi- dents-tied with Chester A. Arthur (1881-85).
But the scholarly rehabilitation of Ike is now under way. Indeed, accorcl- ing to Joes, professor of politics at...

the Great Society, the Vietnam War, and the Watergate scandal, Eisenhower's low-key emphasis on "seeking consensus behind limited aims" seems more attrac- tive to both scholars and the general public.
Democrats Divided "The New Class in Massachusetts: Politics in a Technocratic Society" bv Philip Davies and John Kenneth white, injournal ofAmerican Studies (Aug. 1985), Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th St., New York, N.Y. 10022.
America's Democratic Party is a house...

IODICALS

POLITICS & GOVERNMENT

D1m7ig the 1978 ilfaxsa- chsetts gubernatorial election, many "New Class" Democrats were so c/~senchantedwiththeir
party's unabashedly con- servative candidate, Ed-irard J King, that they 1 voted /<epublican But in 1982, after ~Wic/~ael
Dzika kis (left) beat King in the prm-iaq', these voters swung hack into the Democratic camp

leges and universities, these liberal-minded "New Class" Democrats ac- quired considerable political wei...

tryingto decipher the "intentions" of the First Amendment's authors. The Founding Fathers "could not have fore- seen" the switch from "private, sectarian schools" to a public system cle- signed to educate most of the nation's youth. Nor could they have predicted "the new threats" posed today's "politically involved" evangelists.
Justices and legal scholars have always regarded the language of the First Amendment-which Thomas Jefferson said in 1802...

1983, 72 of the 132 legislators in Madison called politics their only livelihood. All told, Rosenthal estimates that almost "one-third of the na- tion's legislatures are . . . in the hands of full-timers." Only in the less popu- lous states (Nevada, New Hampshire, North Dakota, South Dakota, Ver-mont, and Wyoming) do "part-time citizens" still occupy most state house and senate seats, and their numbers are declining.
Increasing demands on state legislators' time is one reason...

1968, Moscow could overlook U.S. protests ancl assert itself in Czechoslovakia- or, later, in Afghanistan (1979) and Poland (1981). The decline ofhesican power vis-a-vis the Soviets also meant that the United States would be "tested" more often smaller nations such as Iran and Nicaragua.
American responses to such "tests" have been hamstrung by a lack of domestic consensus on what U.S. interests are ancl how they can best be defended. Furthermore, the trauma of the 1965-1973...

IODICALS

FOREIGN POLICY & DEFENSE
respectively, war with the Soviet Union remains the Navy's "most clemand- ins, and important contingency"-though it is also the "least likely." They argue that in today's world of limited conflicts ("violent peace") more emphasis should be given to the use of (less expensive, less vulnerable) non-carrier surface ships to gather intelligence, demonstrate support for allies, and provide a U.S. military presence in trouble spots s...

shifting its forces to new outposts. One likely home for new US. bases: Australia. Japan could also contribute to ASEAN's security boosting its foreign aid. Canberra and Tokyo might not go along with such notions, Betts concedes, but that would only mean that they "do not see more reason to bolster the Western position in Asia than Washington does."
What Matters Most? "The Real National Interest" by Alan Tonelson, in Foreign Policy (Winter 1985), 11
Prussia's Frederick the...

Alicia 13.
Munnell, in New England Economic Renieu' (~ug.1985), Research Department, ~u~Aica-
Social Secu1-7ty.. tions Section, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 600 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass. 02106.
Since 1980, some Reagan administration officials and some congressmen have suggested taking a New Look at America's social security system. To help reduce the annual federal deficit (now $211.9 billion), they have advocated cutting benefits and clipping into the system's trust funds.
But Miinnell,...

Alicia 13.
Munnell, in New England Economic Renieu' (~ug.1985), Research Department, ~u~Aica-
Social Secu1-7ty.. tions Section, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 600 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass. 02106.
Since 1980, some Reagan administration officials and some congressmen have suggested taking a New Look at America's social security system. To help reduce the annual federal deficit (now $211.9 billion), they have advocated cutting benefits and clipping into the system's trust funds.
But Miinnell,...

47.6 percent (relative to the average of currencies of 15 nations belonging to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development),
The dollar's strength, Sinai contends, promoted a surge of imported goods in the United States and a slackening of exports (down $57.5 billion since 1982). Faced with competition from manufacturers abroad, many U.S. businesses (especially in the auto and electronics industries) sought to lower their overhead and production costs by, among other things, raising...

John E. Schwrx iind Thomas J. Voln, in At the 1970s Harvaix/ ~insinvssRet'ivul (~ct.1985), I-lac-
~ird Univ. Graduate School of Business Ad-
ministrtition, Boston, Mass. 02163.
According to the conventional wisdom, America's economy slumped dur- ingtthe 1970s: Falling prey to high rates of interest, unemployment, and inflation, American industries stagnated.
Not quite, say Scliwarz and Volay, political scientists at the University of Arizona. They argue that America's troubles were "misdiagnosed,"...

John E. Schwrx iind Thomas J. Voln, in At the 1970s Harvaix/ ~insinvssRet'ivul (~ct.1985), I-lac-
~ird Univ. Graduate School of Business Ad-
ministrtition, Boston, Mass. 02163.
According to the conventional wisdom, America's economy slumped dur- ingtthe 1970s: Falling prey to high rates of interest, unemployment, and inflation, American industries stagnated.
Not quite, say Scliwarz and Volay, political scientists at the University of Arizona. They argue that America's troubles were "misdiagnosed,"...

Michael Rutter in 1979 (Fifteen Thot[-s-a;zdHours) and James Coleman in 1982 (HighSchool Achievement) demonstrated to Americans that schools can-and therefore should-instill discipline and responsible behavior in their students. And America's welfare programs have been scr~~tinizecl
in an effort to alter their negative incentives. Studies of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program suggest that house- holds receiving guaranteed annual incomes broke up more often than those that...

MarilynCollege, U.S.A. Gittell, in Chqe (Oct. 1985), 4000 Alber- murle St. N.W, \Ytishington, D.C. 20016.
With university tuition in the United States rising faster than inflation, many students are seekingless costly postseconclar-y educations. One answer, repons Gittell, a political scientist at the City University of New York, is the 'community-based college."
'I'llese private, non-profit schools-offering both two- and four-year pro- grams-enroll from 100 to 2,000 students apiece each...

MarilynCollege, U.S.A. Gittell, in Chqe (Oct. 1985), 4000 Alber- murle St. N.W, \Ytishington, D.C. 20016.
With university tuition in the United States rising faster than inflation, many students are seekingless costly postseconclar-y educations. One answer, repons Gittell, a political scientist at the City University of New York, is the 'community-based college."
'I'llese private, non-profit schools-offering both two- and four-year pro- grams-enroll from 100 to 2,000 students apiece each...

IODICALS

SOCIETY
With so much good fortune around, wondered Kaplan, a sociologist at the Florida Institute of Technology, what becomes of the people who win?
Between July and September 1984, he surveyed 576 lottery winners (their prizes ranging from $10,000 to several million dollars). He found that despite tlie financial cormicopia, "the vast majority of winners and their spouses kept working." Specifically, only 11 percent of 446 winners iinil 13 percent of their 253 spouses who w...

'Lubavitcher Hasiclim" hy Lis Harris, in The Nw Jbrker (Scpt. 16-30, 1985),25 \Vest 43rd St., New York, N.Y. 10036.
Along the Eastern Parkway in Brooklyn, N.Y, men garbed in black with
Iondbeards and broad-brimmed hats are often seen chanting at sundown
on Friday nights, before going to synagogue. These Lubavitcl~ers, members
of a branch of Judaism called Hasidism, have been congregting in Brook-
lyn's Crown Heights section since the mid-1930s, when they first emigrated

from Eastern E...

Walter E. Conn, in TheJournal of Religion (Oct. 1985), Univ. of Chicago, 1025 East 58~11St.,Chicago,I11,60637.
In his New Seeds ~fCoiite~?~platio'n
(1961), Thomas Meiton wrote that men who ti-y to live as their own "masters," without deference to a god, "inev- itably live as the servant of another man."
Moreover, added the noted American Trappist monk: "It is the accep- tance of God that . . . delivers [them] from human tyranny."
The deliverance to which Merton...

Walter E. Conn, in TheJournal of Religion (Oct. 1985), Univ. of Chicago, 1025 East 58~11St.,Chicago,I11,60637.
In his New Seeds ~fCoiite~?~platio'n
(1961), Thomas Meiton wrote that men who ti-y to live as their own "masters," without deference to a god, "inev- itably live as the servant of another man."
Moreover, added the noted American Trappist monk: "It is the accep- tance of God that . . . delivers [them] from human tyranny."
The deliverance to which Merton...

investing $2,000 in glassware and chemicals, a skilled chemist can synthesize one kilogram of the dnig, a quantity worth millions of dollars on the street.
Seeking quick profits, underground manufacturers frequently turn out 'sloppy" batches, with fatal consequences for drug users. Roughly 3,000 times more potent than morphine, 3-methyl-fentanyl has caused at least 100 deaths in California to date. Another narcotic, MPPP (an analog of ~neperi- dine, or Demerol) is only three times as potent...

their former occupations and observed that the prevalence of nearsightedness rose as the men became more educated: from 2.5 percent among farmers and fishermen to 12 percent among craftsmen doing close handiwork and 32 percent among scholars. A research project in Alaska found that young, literate Eskimos were more often myopic than their illiterate elders. It is also known that lawyers and graduate students have myopia rates approaching 50 percent.
Only within the last few years, the authors observe,...

creating protein messengers that bind with some genes, and not others. The result of this intricate process is that sets of cells end up with special genetic instructions that differentiate them from other cells nearby. Each cell group then migrates to its proper place in the growing embryo and develops into a specific body pan or system.
Gehring first became aware of these special genes in 1965,while study- ing the developmental stages of fruit flies. Observing strange mutations- legs sprouting...

the year 2000, total downtown office space and employment are projected to rise 21.7 million square feet and 91,000 jobs, respective1y:The Planning Commission hopes the new rules will cut the rate of annual growth by anywhere from one-third to one-half and encourage some businesses to settle outside of the city.
"Oil Pollution: A Decade of Research and

Oil and Water
Monitoring" by John W. Farrington, in Oce-Sometimes Mix anus (Fall 1985),woods Hole Oceanographic
Institution, Woods Hol...

Sandra S. Batie, in Issues in Science and Poor Farming Technology (Fall 19851, 2101 constitution
Ave., Washington, D.C. 20418.
The Great Farm Shakeout, as the newspapers call the current agricultural crisis, has awakened America to the financial mismanagement of many of the nation's farms. Yet money troubles are only half the story, contends Batie, an agricultural economist at Virginia Polytechnic Institute.
Batie argues that sloppy, shortsighted farming practices have damaged untold acres and...

I? N.Furbank) actually deflates Forster's heroic image. The new portrait reveals facts that show him to be not a paragon of virtue but a mollycoddled "prig" who was bullied at school and unable to get along with his peers.
At Cambridge University he finally came into his own, Epstein says. Forster read Classics and fell in with an elite coterie of intellectuals, inclucl- ing philosopher Beitrand Russell and economist John Maynard Keynes. He sought to establish his independence. He shed...

desires and passions-a kind of life that Epstein finds "thin, hollow, and
.. .
finally empty."
Audubon "Audubon and His Legacy" John McEwen, in Art in America (Sept. 1985), 980 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y. 10021
"It is a strange snobbery that isolates botanical or ornithological illustration from. . . art," says McEwen, who writes for the Times of London. "John James Audubon [1785-18511 is one of the most notable victims of this prejudice."
It is true...

tlie great terror of his formative years, a feeling that seems to show up in his later works ("the stricken great black-backed g~111,the fierce hawks and their victims, the two golden-eye in the act of I>eing shot . . . ").
In 1803, Auduhon left France for America, to enter business and mar^^^. But he failed repeatedly as an entrepreneur. the time lie was 35 years old, he decided to abandon business altogether and just paint birds. Within six years he had completed enough good drawings...

the expansion of the record and radio broadcasting industries, professional songwriters copyrighted more than 100,000 popular tunes during this 20- year "golden age" ofAmerican songwriting. Of course, most of those ditties were flops. (Even the "giants" of the era could only count about five percent of their total output as commercially successful.) Yet the ones that hit, hit big. Royalties from recordings and sheet music of Berlin's "Alexan- der's Rag Time Band" (1911)...

easing up on several fronts: halting religious persecution (and freeing the 400 or so current "religious prisoners"); opening the doors to emigration; creating less arbitrary legal and penal systems; and appeasing some dissident ethnic groups, particu- larly the Muslim Tatars and Meskhetians who were ousted from Crimea and Georgia Stalin in 1944.
Help for the "dissident" group most in need of reform-the proletariat-is not so close at hand, the author maintains. Various workers'...

B. C. Koh, in Asian Surrey (Sept. South KOW? 1985),University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif. 94720.
On February 12, 1985, more than 20 million South Koreans (about 85 percent of all eligible voters) went to the polls-the highest turnout in 27 years. There they elected to the country's National Assembly 148 candidates from Presiclent Chun Doo 1-l~an's ruling Democratic Justice Party (DJP), 67 from the New Korea Democratic Party (NKDP), and 61 from other parties.
Although the DJP did prevail,...

public agencies andprivate institutions

"Economic Sanctions Reconsidered."
Institute for International Economics, 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 753 pp. $45.00. Authors: Gary Clyde Hufbauer and JeffreyJ. Schott

On September 9, 1985, President Reagan announced the imposition of certain eco- nomic sanctions against the government of South Africa. To prod Pretoria into dis- mantling its apartheid policies, ton decided, among other things, to ban the export of American comp...

Book Reviews

Graham Swift. Wash
ington Square, 1984. 270 pp. $6.95

Essays

sun and Mediterranean or Atlantic breezes. The reality is that since World War 11, the French, now 55 million strong, have built one of the Free World's top four industrial powers. Their belated move into the late 20th century has brought both blessings and problems; in parliamentary elec- tions this March, high unemployment (1 1 percent) and other ills may hurt President Francois Mitterrand's Socialists, who in 1981 formed France's first left-wing government in 23 years. Here, John Ardagh looks...

's mystique endures. When Americans travel there, as some half a million do each year, they have two nations in mind. One is the land where the word civilization was coined, where Descartes, Rousseau, Louis XIV, Napoleon, Hugo, de Gaulle, and others still loom large. Then there is "the real France," a term suggesting an almost 19th- century world of swaying poplars, old chateaux, peasants, bistros, and beaches washed by sun and Mediterranean or Atlantic breezes. The reality is that since...

John Ardagh

ing the recession-ridden summer of 1983, when Presi- dent Francois Mitterrand's two-year-old Socialist government was sagging in the opinion polls, the prestigious daily Le Monde took action. Its editors ran a series of front-page articles lamenting "the silence of the intellectuals."
Indeed, the lack of support for Mitterrand from Paris writers and thinkers was surprising. He not only had led the return to power of the Left, the historic home of the French intellectual, but, given his...

Diana Pinto

the ninth century, when the Catholic emperor Charles the Great held sway, "the French" were of Neolithic stock and that of Celtic, Roman, Frankish, Bur- gundian, and Norman arrivistes. Their initial success, dating from when the Gauls grew wheat and Cistercian monks burned forests to make fertilizer ash, lacked gloiw: They built Europe's first society of independent farmers, an achievement "as specific to France as the network of great trading cities was to Rome and the need for an...

dpdf-doc>
Americans are ambivalent about technology. They make folk heroes of the engineers who forge new technologies-Robert Fulton, Thomas Edison, and, most recently, Steven Wozniak, inventor of the Apple computer. Yet scholars and pundits chroni- cally worry that technology and its servants will overwhelm the human spirit. I11 1986, U.S. colleges and universities will graduate some 82,000 new engineers, trained to create space-age commu- nications, plan bridges and dams, or design computer chips....

David P. Billington

leaders of Indian organizations; they have largely abandoned the violent takeovers and sit-ins epitomized the 1973 siege at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Most Indian spokes- men assert that their broader goal is to maintain a distinct "Indian way of life." Yet how to do so is a matter of deep disagreement. How isolated from America's larger society can Indians afford to remain? How much development of the natural resources on Indian reservations should be permitted? Members of the na- tion's...

America's Indians, the U.S. Supreme Court has become a major source of redress. During the last term alone, the Justices handed down seven rulings in cases involving the country's old- est ethnic group; at issue were land claims, fishing rights, and mineral leases. The upsurge in Indian litigation signals a change in tactics by leaders of Indian organizations; they have largely abandoned the violent takeovers and sit-ins epitomized by the 1973 siege at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Most Indian spokes-...

Patricia Nelson Limerick

December 28, 1890, near the Badlands of South Dakota, a band of exhausted Sioux Indians, including perhaps 100 war- riors and some 250 women and children, surrendered to the blue-clad troopers of the U.S. Seventh Cavalry and agreed to travel with them to the Indian agency at Pine Ridge. The joint party camped that night in freezing weather at Wounded Knee Creek, 20 miles from Pine Ridge. Surrounding the Indian tepees were nearly 500 soldiers and a battery of four Hotchkiss light artillery pieces.
The...

Stephen Cornell

co~~versio~l
of these SOLI~S." A cellt~1l-y later, the Hopis w0~11d spw-n the Mexicans as they 1~x1sp~lr~~ed The Americals stoly. 111
the Spa~lisl~. were a~lotl~er 1850, followi~~g
the U~litecl Srates' victo~y in the war wit11 Mexico, the Hopis establisl~ed relatio~~s wit11 the federal govesnn1ent. Wl~y?A relatively pcifist people, they faced fseq~ient raids by the stronger and lnore aggressive Namllos. They welco~ned effosts by the U.S.cav~11-y ~~eigl~bors.
to subdue their 130werf~il U...

David Edmunds

all Americans.
The Native American Renais- sance,to borrow the title of Kenneth Lincoln's study (Univ. of Calif., 1983), has been aborning for some time, helped along a new generation of college-educated Indians.
An essential bridge from spoken to written language was provided half a century ago in South Dakota by Black Elk, the Oglala Sioux prophet (1863- 1950), and by his tireless interlocutor, the late John G. Neihardt, the Nebraska poet and scholar who took down Black Elk's words.
"Always...

INGWAY
I2oi1g lbefore his suicide in 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway had be- come the subject of a sizable scholarly/journalistic enterprise. His death, however, gave the Heminqway "industry" new direction and added impetus: Why, biographers asked, had the great novelist taken his own life? Two of the more extensive explanations were offered by
A. E. IHotcl~ner{Papa Hemingway, 1966) and Carlos Baker (Enzest Hemingway:A Life St0?-jl,1969). Curiosity about Hemingway waned during the 1970s,...

Frank McConnell

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