Richard J. Herrn-
stein and James E. Mazur, in The Sciences
(Nov.-Dec. 19871, New York Academy of Sci-
ences, 2 East 63rd St., New York, N.Y. 10021.
"The natural effort of every individual to better his own condition. . . is so powerful a principle," wrote Adam Smith in 1776, "that it is alone.. .capable of carrying on the society to wealth and prosperity." Economists still hew to this theory of "utility maximization," which is applied not only to financial decisions...